Applications

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Modeling Cardiac Hypertrophy

Cardiac hypertrophy can occur in response to various pathological stimuli and is characterized by cellular changes including reactivation of the fetal gene program, increases in cellular volume...

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Modeling Cardiac Hypertrophy

Discovery, Disease Modeling

Cardiac hypertrophy can occur in response to various pathological stimuli and is characterized by cellular changes including reactivation of the fetal gene program, increases in cellular volume, and reorganization of the cytoskeleton. Using CDI’s cardiomyocytes, researchers can induce the hypertrophic condition in vitro using stimuli, such as endothelin-1, and measured by phenotypic endpoints including:

  • BNP gene expression by qRT-PCR
  • BNP protein expression by flow cytometry
  • BNP protein expression by HCA
  • BNP protein secretion by ELISA

Modeling Hypoxia

Myocardial ischemia is a pathological condition characterized by reduced oxygen supply (hypoxia) that can lead to cell death, arrhythmia, organ injury, and death.

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Modeling Hypoxia

Discovery, Disease Modeling

Myocardial ischemia is a pathological condition characterized by reduced oxygen supply (hypoxia) that can lead to cell death, arrhythmia, organ injury, and death. Ironically, returning hypoxic myocardium to normoxic levels exacerbates the pathology (collectively known as myocardial reperfusion injury). CDI’s cardiomyocytes are amenable to hypoxia induction, measurement of hypoxia-induced functional endpoints, and screening for cardioprotective agents.

Modeling Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a complication of type 2 diabetes that results from lifestyle and genetic conditions.

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Modeling Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

Discovery, Disease Modeling

Diabetic cardiomyopathy is a complication of type 2 diabetes that results from lifestyle and genetic conditions. CDI’s cardiomyocytes have been used to develop environmental and patient-specific in vitro models that recapitulate this complex metabolic condition. These models are employed in a phenotypic screening assay resulting in the identification of candidate protective molecules.

Modeling Hepatitis Infection

Hepatitis infection mediated by HCV and HBV is a common cause of liver disease and failure.

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Modeling Hepatitis Infection

Discovery, Disease Modeling

Hepatitis infection mediated by HCV and HBV is a common cause of liver disease and failure. Developing effective therapies for hepatitis has been limited due to the lack of physiologically relevant human disease models. CDI’s hepatocytes express hepatitis receptors (SR-B1, CD91, occludin, claudin-1), which support uptake and replication of clinically relevant hepatitis virus genotypes. These hepatocytes are being used in large-scale screens for novel therapeutic candidates. CDI offers hepatocytes from multiple donors including one with an IFNL4 function that does not readily clear HCV infection.

Modeling Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

CDI's neurons provide a biologically relevant human cell model to study mechanisms of VZV infection, which was previously not possible using primary neuronal cells due to limitations in cell functionality and purity.

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Modeling Varicella Zoster Virus Infection

Discovery, Disease Modeling

CDI’s neurons provide a biologically relevant human cell model to study mechanisms of VZV infection, which was previously not possible using primary neuronal cells due to limitations in cell functionality and purity. Specifically, VZV infection results in a non-productive infection characterized by viral gene expression in the absence of apoptosis. This disease phenotype enables molecular analysis of VZV-neuron interactions and mechanisms of VZV reactivation.

  1. Baird NL, Bowlin JL, et al. (2014) Varicella Zoster Virus DNA Does Not Accumulate in Infected Human Neurons. Virology 458-459:1-3.
  2. Baird NL, Bowlin JL, et al. (2014) Comparison of Varicella-Zoster Virus RNA Sequences in Human Neurons and Fibroblasts. J Virol 88(10):5877-80.
  3. Yu X, Sietz S, et al. (2013) Varicella Zoster Virus Infection of Highly Pure Terminally Differentiated Human Neurons. J Neurovirol 19:75-81.
  4. Grose C, Xiaoli Y, et al. (2013) Aberrant Virion Assembly and Limited Glycoprotein C Production in Varicella-Zoster Virus-Infected Neurons. J Virol 87(17):9643-8.

Modeling Botulinum Neurotoxin Infection

CDI's neurons provide a functionally relevant human model to measure Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) activity.

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Modeling Botulinum Neurotoxin Infection

Discovery, Disease Modeling, Toxicity

CDI’s neurons provide a functionally relevant human model to measure Clostridium botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) activity. Compared with primary rat spinal cord cells, CDI’s neurons showed equal or increased sensitivity, improved dose-response, and more complete SNARE protein cleavage in response to BoNT treatment. CDI’s neurons are rapidly being adopted by researchers to study mechanisms of BoNT toxicity and by BoNT manufacturers to replace an expensive and labor-intensive mouse bioassay for potency testing.

Modeling Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a condition with recurring seizures caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain.

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Modeling Epilepsy

Discovery, Disease Modeling

Epilepsy is a condition with recurring seizures caused by abnormal electrical activity in the brain. CDI’s neurons have been used to develop in vitro models that recapitulate the functional phenotype of pathogenic mutations. These models are being used to better understand the biophysical properties of ion channels with the goal of identifying candidate therapeutic molecules for improved drug safety.

  1. Padilla KM, Antonio BM, et al. (2014) Approaches to Understanding Human Ion Channel Genetic Variation and Disease – An Example with a KCNT1 Variant and Infantile Epilepsy Disorder. Poster Presentation, Society for Neuroscience.

Modeling Parkinson’s Disease

Parkinson's disease is the result of a progressing degeneration of dopamine-producing brain cells, specifically midbrain dopaminergic neurons, that results in a loss of motor function and in dementia.

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Modeling Parkinson’s Disease

Discovery, Disease Modeling

Parkinson’s disease is the result of a progressing degeneration of dopamine-producing brain cells, specifically midbrain dopaminergic neurons, that result in a loss of motor function and in dementia. CDI’s neurons and dopaneurons are being used to elucidate the mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease including mitochondrial dysfunction, synapse degeneration, ubiquitin-proteasome degradation, oxidative stress, and others.

Modeling Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by the neuropathological hallmarks of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that eventually result in neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

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Modeling Alzheimer’s Disease

Discovery, Disease Modeling

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized by the neuropathological hallmarks of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles that eventually result in neuronal loss in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. As functional human models, CDI’s neurons are actively being applied in research to investigate relevant molecular and cellular mechanisms of AD. These in vitro cellular models are capable of recapitulating the disease phenotype and have been employed in various assays including a high-throughput phenotypic screening assay resulting in the identification of candidate protective molecules.

  1. Chai X, Dage JL, et al. (2012) Constitutive Secretion of Tau Protein by an Unconventional Mechanism. Neurobiol Dis 48(3):356-366.
  2. Xu X, Lei Y, et al. (2013) Prevention of ß-amyloid Induced Toxicity in Human iPS Cell-derived Neurons by Inhibition of Cyclin-dependent Kinases and Associated Cell Cycle Events. Stem Cell Res 10(2):213-227.
  3. Maloney JA, Bainbridge T, et al. (2014) Molecular Mechanisms of Alzheimer’s Disease Protection by the A673T Allele of the Amyloid Precursor Protein. J Biol Chem 289(45):30990-1000.
  4. Alhebshi AH, Odawara A, et al. (2014) Thymoquinone Protects Cultured Hippocampal and Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells-derived Neurons against α-synuclein-induced Synapse Damage. Neurosci Lett 570:126-131.
  5. Carlson C, Wang J, et al. (2014) Characterization of an Isogenic Disease Model of Alzheimer’s Disease from Human iPSC-derived Neurons. Poster Presentation, Society for Neuroscience.
  6. Usenovic M, Niroomand S, et al. (2014) Model of Tau Pathology in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-derived Human Neurons. Poster Presentation, Society for Neuroscience.

Modeling Autism Spectrum Disorder

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities including Rett and Asperger’s syndromes that result in significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges.

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Modeling Autism Spectrum Disorder

Discovery, Disease Modeling

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a group of developmental disabilities that result in significant social, communication, and behavioral challenges. Model ASD using CDI’s iPSC-derived neurons, including those from donors with autism, Asperger’s, or cell types that display autistic-like phenotypes such as Rett syndrome knock-out model.